We chose arabidopsis for our first feasibility study of mapping leaf venation patterning because of its central importance in terrestrial and space plant research. Convenient features of this model organism includes its small size (20-25 cm), short growing period (several weeks), small genome (approximately 25,000 genes), and especially, its distinction as the only plant among the five major genetic model organisms that is readily susceptible to laboratory engineering of targeted single-point mutations (Figure 2; Muller and Grossniklaus, 2010; Taiz and Zeiger, 2010).
At the elementary level, the engineering standards focused on distinguishingbetween the natural and human made world, such as comparing tools with animalbody parts, e.g., scissors vs. lobster claws and dog paws vs. rakes. Material properties and the basics of the engineering design process were also included. Theyare intended to be covered by the mainstream classroom teacher, who also covers all other core subjects.
At the middle school level, the standards focus againon the engineering design process and also on five technology areas: construction, manufacturing, communication, transportation, and bio-related technologies.
use engineering process - what-if project - identify the problem. explore. design. create. try it out. make it better X 3 - 3 separate project cycles, 1 quick walkthrough / demo, 1 significant, 1 shorter opportunity to put learning from project 1&2 review/analysis into practice
Krista Donaldson has been working at the intersection of design andinternational development for over twelve years, applying engineeringand design to confounding social problems in the developing world. Herrecent work focused on medical devices: Brilliance a device to treat babies with severe jaundice, and the JaipurKnee, an artificial knee for developing world amputees. Donaldson was a diplomacy fellow at theU.S. Department of State, a design engineer with KickStart International in Nairobi, Kenya, and at the product design firm IDEO.A native of Nova Scotia, Krista has a BE in Mechanical Engineeringfrom Vanderbilt University, a MSE (Product Design), MSME and a PhDfrom Stanford University. Her doctoral work was among the first tofocus on engineering and social entrepreneurship in lessindustrialized economies. Donaldson is also a lecturer at the HassoPlattner Institute of Design at Stanford University. 2b1af7f3a8